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Viral Infections

What is a viral infection?

When a virus gets into your body and grows it is called a viral infection. Your body's immune system must fight and destroy the viruses. Young children have trouble fighting viruses because their immune system is still developing.

The most common viral infection is the common cold. Some other viral illnesses in children include:

  • bronchiolitis and viral pneumonia
  • roseola
  • fifth disease
  • warts
  • chickenpox
  • human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
  • measles
  • mumps
  • polio
  • viral diarrhea (rotavirus)
  • adenovirus.

What is the cause?

Viruses are spread by coming in contact with infected fluids or secretions. They can be on surfaces such as toys, tables, doorknobs, or telephones. A common way to "catch" a virus is if you touch an infected person or item and then rub your eyes or nose. Viruses can also enter the body through foods, drinks, or insect or animal bites. Viruses can also be inhaled from the air after someone coughs or sneezes. Another way a virus can be passed is from a mother to her newborn baby before or during delivery, or very rarely through breast-feeding.

What are the symptoms?

The symptoms caused by viruses depend on where they are in the body. Some cause a sore throat, cough, runny nose, headache, or muscle aches. Others cause abdominal symptoms such as nausea, cramping, and diarrhea.

How can I help take care of my child?

Viruses are hard to kill without also damaging or killing the living cells they infect. This problem makes it hard to develop medicines that kill just viruses. There are some antiviral medicines, but they are only used for a few viral infections. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses.

If your child has a viral infection, have your child:

  • get plenty of rest
  • drink lots of fluids
  • eat lightly.

Give your child acetaminophen or ibuprofen for fever and pain relief. Unless recommended by a health care provider, people under 18 years of age should not take aspirin or products containing salicylate (such as Pepto-Bismol) because of the risk of Reye's syndrome.

Also, you should keep your child home from school or other events until there's been no fever for over 24 hours.

How can I help prevent a viral infection?

Make sure your child washes his or her hands frequently, especially after going to the bathroom. Avoid sharing eating utensils, towels, and handkerchiefs. Catch sneezes and coughs with disposable tissues and throw tissues away immediately.

Many viral diseases can be prevented by immunization shots. Make sure your child gets all recommended vaccinations. A healthy diet, plenty of exercise, and rest will help your child to fight off viral infections.

Developed by McKesson Provider Technologies.
Published by McKesson Provider Technologies.
Last modified: 2006-10-05
Last reviewed: 2006-08-22
This content is reviewed periodically and is subject to change as new health information becomes available. The information is intended to inform and educate and is not a replacement for medical evaluation, advice, diagnosis or treatment by a healthcare professional.
Copyright 2006 McKesson Corporation and/or one of its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved.
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